Albert Abraham Michelson - First American of any faith to win a Nobel Prize in Science (1907). Developer of precise optical instruments that, among other things, allowed for measuring the speed of light. Michelson, who was born in Poland, came to the US as a small child. He was a graduate of the Annapolis, the US Navy Academy. He taught Physics at the Academy in the 1870s. A building is named in his honor at the Academy. Michelson (and Morley) also conducted a famous experiment which showed that there was no "ether"--a hypothetical substance that many scientists speculated effected the propagation of light. Michelson volunteered for service at the beginning of WWI (he was 65) and was given the rank of Lieut. Commander (he served stateside).
American. Nobel Prize, 1978. For his part in the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Penzias was born in Germany to Polish Jewish parents. His family was expelled from Germany in 1938 and came to the United States in 1939. His discovery is credited with providing solid evidence of the "big bang" theory of the origins of the universe.
laser spectroscopy, Nobel Prize (1981) (Jewish father)
a founder of astronautics
American. Co-winner (with Aage Bohr) of the 1975 Nobel Prize. Their work helped explain the inner workings of the atom.
Leon Pinsker was a physician, a Zionist pioneer and activist, and the founder and leader of the Hovevei Zion, also known as Hibbat Zion (Hebrew: חיבת ציון, Lovers of Zion) movement.
Ibn Ezra (1089 - 1164) was born at Tudela, Navarre (now in Spain) in 1089, and died c. 1167, apparently in Calahorra. He was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. Ibn Ezra excelled in philosophy, astronomy/astrology, mathematics, poetry, linguistics, and exegesis; he was called The Wise, The Great and The Admirable Doctor.
Volynov is a Soviet cosmonaut who flew two space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 5, and Soyuz 21. He was the first Jewish cosmonaut.
Resnik was an American engineer and a NASA astronaut who died in the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger during the launch of mission STS-51-L. Resnik was the second American and first Jewish woman astronaut, logging 145 hours in orbit. She was a graduate of Carnegie Mellon University and had a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland. The IEEE Judith Resnik Award for space engineering is named in her honor.
Hoffman, Ph.D. is a Jewsih American former NASA astronaut and currently a professor of aeronautics and astronautics at MIT. Hoffman made five flights as a space shuttle astronaut, including the first mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope in 1993, when the orbiting telescope's flawed optical system was corrected.
Baker, M.D., M.P.H. is a Jewish American physician and a NASA astronaut. Baker serves as Chief of the Education/Medical Branch of the NASA Astronaut Office.
Ivins is a former Jewish American astronaut and a veteran of five space shuttle missions. She has a degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder.
Apt, Ph.D. is a Jewish American astronaut and professor at Carnegie Mellon University. Before he became an astronaut, Apt was a physicist who worked on the Venus space probe project, and used visible light and infrared techniques to study the planets and moons of the solar system from ground-based observatories.
Wolf is a Jewish American astronaut, medical doctor, electrical engineer. Wolf has been to space four times. Three of his spaceflights were short-duration Space Shuttle missions, the first of which was STS-58 in 1993, and his most recent spaceflight was STS-127 in 2009. Wolf also took part in a long-duration mission aboard the Russian space station Mir which lasted 128 days, and occurred during Mir EO-24.
Fettman is a Jewish American pathologist and researcher who flew on NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-58 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia as a Payload Specialist.